Biology of Mammals

The biology of mammals: diversity, evolutionary history, morphology, and aspects of physiology and ecology. Local field trips. Prerequisite: Biology 20 or 202L or equivalent. One course. 3 graduate units.


Survey of the major groups of fungi with emphasis on life history and systematics. Field and laboratory exercises. One course. 3 graduate units.


Processes controlling the circulation of carbon and biochemical elements in natural ecosystems and at the global level, with emphasis on soil and surficial processes. Topics include human impact on and social consequences of greenhouse gases, ozone, and heavy metals in the environment. Prerequisite: Chemistry 101DL or equivalent; Recommended: Chemistry 210DL. One course. 3 graduate units.

Biodiversity Science and Application

Processes responsible for natural biodiversity from popula- tions to the globe. Topics include species interactions (e.g., competition, predation, parasitism), natural and human disturbance, climate change, and implications for management and conservation. Lab section involving observation and data from large-scale manipulations, such as experimental hurricanes, fire, and herbivore exclosures. One course. 3 graduate units.

Experimental Tropical Marine Ecology

Distribution and density of marine and semi-terrestrial tropical invertebrate populations; behavioral and mechanical adaptations to physical stress, competition, and predation using rapid empirical approaches and hypothesis testing. Offered only at Beaufort, with preparation for fieldwork before and analysis and presentation of projects after required one week intensive field experience on the coast of Panama. Consent of instructor required. Half course. 2 graduate units.


Evolutionary patterns and processes at and above the species level; species concepts, speciation, diversification, extinction, ontogeny and phylogeny, rates of evolution, and alternative explanations for adaptation and evolutionary trends. Prerequisite: Biology 202L or equivalent. Recommended: one course in plant or animal diversity and one course in evolution beyond 202L. One course. 3 graduate units.