Daniel Rittschof

Professor of Biology

135 Duke Marine Lab Rd, Beaufort, NC 28516
(252) 504-7634
My day to day research focus is ecology with emphasis on larval biology, chemical, behavioral, spatial ecology and environmental toxicology. Theoretical contributions are in the origins and evolution of chemical systems. Presently, there are three areas of focus: 1) Ecology and behavioral biology of local macroinvertebrates such as blue crabs and mud snails; 2) Barnacle models as they relate to fouling and the prevention of fouling and bioadhesives; 3. Impacts of xenobiotics on behavior and reproduction. I and my students are funded in all three areas with grants to work on a variety of aspects of ecology and reproduction of blue crabs, grants to study families of barnacles with heritable biological adhesive phenotypes and to provide expertise in barnacle biology and to provide living material for the Office of Naval Research Fouling Research program and funding to study impacts of biocide boosters on reproduction and fecundity of target and non target species. I am continuing to participate in an antifouling program in Singapore which began January 2000. The Singapore program has the goal of using drugs from medicine as environmentally benign antifoulants. I have recently begun collaborative research programs in India and Brazil.


  • Ph.D., University of Michigan, Ann Arbor 1975

  • M.S., University of Michigan, Ann Arbor 1970

Rittschof, D. “Candy and poisons: Fouling management with pharmacophore coatings.” In Advances in Polymer Science, 284:355–66, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1007/12_2017_34. Full Text

Christy, J. H., and D. Rittschof. “Deception in visual and chemical communication in crustaceans.” In Chemical Communication in Crustaceans, 313–33, 2011. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-77101-4_16. Full Text

Butler, A. J., J. Canning-Clode, A. D. M. Coutts, P. R. Cowie, S. Dobretsov, S. Dürr, M. Faimali, et al. “Techniques for the Quantification of Biofouling.” In Biofouling, 319–32, 2010. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781444315462.ch22. Full Text

Choong, A. M. F., J. S. Maki, J. T. B. Ikhwan, C. L. Chen, D. Rittschof, and S. L. M. Teo. “Pharmaceuticals as antifoulants: Inhibition of growth & effects on adhesion of marine bacteria.” In Biofouling : Types, Impact, and Anti-Fouling, edited by J. Chan and S. Wong. New York: Nova Science Publishers, 2010.

Rittschof, D. “Trends in marine biofouling research.” In Advances in Marine Antifouling Coatings and Technologies, 725–48, 2009. https://doi.org/10.1533/9781845696313.4.725. Full Text

Rittschof, D. “Novel antifouling coatings: a multiconceptual approach.” In Marine and Industrial Biofouling, edited by H. C. Flemming, P. S. Murthy, R. Venkatesan, and K. E. Cooksey, 179–88. Berlin; New York: Springer, 2009.

Rittschof, D. “Hermit crabs.” In Encyclopedia of Tidepools and Rocky Shores, edited by M. W. Denny and S. D. Gaines, 273–75. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2007.

Rittschof, D. “Natural product antifoulants and coatings development.” In Marine Chemical Ecology, 543–66, 2001. https://doi.org/10.1201/9781420036602. Full Text

Rittschof, D., and K. K. Parker. “Cooperative antifouling testing : A novel multisector approach.” In Recent Advances in Marine Biotechnology, Vol. 6, Bio-Organic Compounds: Chemistry and Biomedical Applications, edited by M. Fingerman and R. Nagabhushanam, 239–53. Enfield, (NH): Science Publishers, 2001.


Dayanidhi, D. L., B. C. Thomas, J. S. Osterberg, M. Vuong, G. Vargas, S. K. Kwartler, E. Schmaltz, et al. “Exploring the Diversity of the Marine Environment for New Anti-cancer Compounds.” Frontiers in Marine Science 7 (January 21, 2021). https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2020.614766. Full Text

Schmaltz, Emma, Emily C. Melvin, Zoie Diana, Ella F. Gunady, Daniel Rittschof, Jason A. Somarelli, John Virdin, and Meagan M. Dunphy-Daly. “Plastic pollution solutions: emerging technologies to prevent and collectmarineplastic pollution.Environ Int 144 (November 2020): 106067. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2020.106067. Full Text

Metzler, Rebecca A., Jessica O’Malley, Jack Herrick, Brett Christensen, Beatriz Orihuela, Daniel Rittschof, and Gary H. Dickinson. “Amphibalanus amphitrite begins exoskeleton mineralization within 48 hours of metamorphosis.Royal Society Open Science 7, no. 9 (September 30, 2020): 200725. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsos.200725. Full Text

Diana, Zoie, Natasha Sawickij, Nelson A. Rivera, Heileen Hsu-Kim, and Daniel Rittschof. “Plastic pellets trigger feeding responses in sea anemones.Aquatic Toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands) 222 (May 2020): 105447. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2020.105447. Full Text

Zhu, Mei, Melissa Chernick, Daniel Rittschof, and David E. Hinton. “Chronic dietary exposure to polystyrene microplastics in maturing Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes).Aquatic Toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands) 220 (March 2020): 105396. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2019.105396. Full Text

Dobretsov, Sergey, and Daniel Rittschof. “Love at First Taste: Induction of Larval Settlement by Marine Microbes.International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21, no. 3 (January 22, 2020). https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21030731. Full Text

Schultzhaus, Janna N., Chris R. Taitt, Beatriz Orihuela, Madeline Smerchansky, Zachary S. Schultzhaus, Daniel Rittschof, Kathryn J. Wahl, and Christopher M. Spillmann. “Comparison of seven methods for DNA extraction from prosomata of the acorn barnacle, Amphibalanus amphitrite.Analytical Biochemistry 586 (December 2019): 113441. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ab.2019.113441. Full Text

Agusman, Suheil J., Y. Qi, Z. Wu, J. He, D. Rittschof, P. Su, C. Ke, and D. Feng. “Conspecific cues that induce spore settlement in the biofouling and green tide-forming alga Ulva tepida provide a potential aggregation mechanism.” International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation 145 (November 1, 2019). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibiod.2019.104807. Full Text

Fears, Kenan P., Andrew Barnikel, Ann Wassick, Heonjune Ryou, Janna N. Schultzhaus, Beatriz Orihuela, Jenifer M. Scancella, et al. “Adhesion of acorn barnacles on surface-active borate glasses.Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences 374, no. 1784 (October 2019): 20190203. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2019.0203. Full Text

Liang, C., J. Strickland, Z. Ye, W. Wu, B. Hu, and D. Rittschof. “Biochemistry of Barnacle Adhesion: An Updated Review.” Frontiers in Marine Science 6 (September 10, 2019). https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2019.00565. Full Text


Rittschof, D., J. Hench, M. Z. Darnell, and J. Chen. “Blue Crab Movements in a Wind Driven System: Summer and Fall Movements of Adults.” In Integrative and Comparative Biology, 56:E357–E357. OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC, 2016.

Sison, Julian, Beatriz Orihuela, Daniel Rittschof, and Gary H. Dickinson. “CHARACTERIZING KEY PROTEINS THAT CONTRIBUTE TO BARNACLE ADHESION.” In Journal of Shellfish Research, 34:679–679. NATL SHELLFISHERIES ASSOC, 2015.

Dickinson, Gary H., Conall G. McNicholl, Beatriz Orihuela, and Daniel Rittschof. “ASSESSING THE EFFECT OF SALINITY ON BARNACLE ADHESION AND BIOMINERALIZATION.” In Journal of Shellfish Research, 34:625–625. NATL SHELLFISHERIES ASSOC, 2015.

Essock-Burns, T., D. Leary, E. Solderbloom, B. Orihuela, A. Moseley, C. Spillmann, K. Wahl, and D. Rittschof. “Use of Arthropod Wound Healing Mechanisms in Barnacles Amphibalanus (=Balanus) amphitrite.” In Integrative and Comparative Biology, 55:E53–E53. OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC, 2015.

Essock-Burns, T., A. Tarrell, P. Mathai, N. Gohad, A. S. Mount, J. S. Maki, and D. Rittschof. “Interactions between biofilm bacteria and barnacles Balanus amphitrite.” In Integrative and Comparative Biology, 53:E65–E65. OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC, 2013.

Von Dassow, Y. J., and D. Rittschof. “Switch and bait: use of artificial egg masses to investigate predation on embryos.” In Integrative and Comparative Biology, 53:E387–E387, 2013.

Wahl, Kathryn J., Daniel K. Burden, Daniel E. Barlow, Christopher M. Spillmann, Richard K. Everett, and Daniel Rittschof. “Microscopic and spectroscopic studies of bioadhesive interfaces.” In Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 244. AMER CHEMICAL SOC, 2012.

Burden, Daniel K., Daniel E. Barlow, Christopher M. Spillmann, Richard K. Everett, Daniel Rittschof, Beatriz Orihuela, and Kathryn J. Wahl. “In situ analysis of spatial and temporal variations in newly formed barnacle adhesive.” In Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 244. AMER CHEMICAL SOC, 2012.

Wu, F., G. H. Dickinson, K. Kruszewski, E. S. Gawalt, D. Rittschof, and E. Beniash. “Identification of small molecule components of barnacle glue,” 2012.

Rittschof, D., G. H. Dickinson, K. J. Wahl, D. Barlow, B. Orihuela, I. E. Vega, and R. Everett. “Barnacle Glue, is curing like blood clotting?” In Integrative and Comparative Biology, 52:E146–E146. OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC, 2012.


Virdin, John, Rachel Karasik, Tibor Vegh, Amy Pickle, Zoie Diana, Daniel Rittschof, Janet Bering, and Juan Caldas. “20 Years of Government Responses to the Global Plastic Pollution Problem: The Plastics Policy Inventory.” 20 Years of Government Responses to the Global Plastic Pollution Problem: The Plastics Policy Inventory. Nicholas Institute for Environmental Policy Solutions: Duke University Nicholas Institute for Environmental Policy Solutions, May 15, 2020. Open Access Copy

Selected Grants

Code 33 Barnacles and Expertise for Antiffouling, Foul Release and Adhesion Research awarded by Office of Naval Research (Principal Investigator). 2020 to 2023

Biofouling studies using larvae of common biofoulers awarded by Leidos (Principal Investigator). 2019 to 2022

Barnacles and Expertise for Antifouling, Foul Release and Adhesion Research awarded by Office of Naval Research (Principal Investigator). 2016 to 2021

Determining Microbiiomes on Roofing Shingles awarded by GAF (Principal Investigator). 2017 to 2018

Plastics as food mimics awarded by Oak Foundation (Principal Investigator). 2016 to 2018

The Barnacle Adhesive System and the transition to mineralization awarded by Office of Naval Research (Principal Investigator). 2014 to 2017

Assessing the effect of environment on barnacle settlement, adhesion and biomineralization awarded by The College of New Jersey (Principal Investigator). 2014 to 2017

Effects of Environment on Blue Crab Size: Fisheries Science Place Based Learning and a Reciprocal Transplant Growth Study awarded by NC Department of Environmental Quality (Principal Investigator). 2015 to 2017

Crab-Crane Conservation Coupling: 2014 awarded by Nicholls State University (Principal Investigator). 2015 to 2016