Daniel Rittschof

Associate Professor of Biology

135 Duke Marine Lab Rd, Beaufort, NC 28516
(252) 504-7634
My day to day research focus is ecology with emphasis on larval biology, chemical, behavioral, spatial ecology and environmental toxicology. Theoretical contributions are in the origins and evolution of chemical systems. Presently, there are three areas of focus: 1) Ecology and behavioral biology of local macroinvertebrates such as blue crabs and mud snails; 2) Barnacle models as they relate to fouling and the prevention of fouling and bioadhesives; 3. Impacts of xenobiotics on behavior and reproduction. I and my students are funded in all three areas with grants to work on a variety of aspects of ecology and reproduction of blue crabs, grants to study families of barnacles with heritable biological adhesive phenotypes and to provide expertise in barnacle biology and to provide living material for the Office of Naval Research Fouling Research program and funding to study impacts of biocide boosters on reproduction and fecundity of target and non target species. I am continuing to participate in an antifouling program in Singapore which began January 2000. The Singapore program has the goal of using drugs from medicine as environmentally benign antifoulants. I have recently begun collaborative research programs in India and Brazil.


  • Ph.D., University of Michigan at Ann Arbor 1975

  • M.S., University of Michigan at Ann Arbor 1970

Vega, IE, Rittschof, D, Dickinson, GH, and Musgrave, I. "Evolutionary Proteomics: Empowering Tandem Mass Spectrometry and Bioinformatics Tools for the Study of Evolution." In Tandem mass spectrometry - applications and principles,edited by JK Prasain, 57-86. Rijeka: InTech, 2012. Full Text

Rittschof, D. "Research on Practical Environmentally Benign Antifouling Coatings." In Biofouling, 397-409. January 1, 2010. Full Text

Butler, AJ, Canning-Clode, J, Coutts, ADM, Cowie, PR, Dobretsov, S, Dürr, S, Faimali, M, Lewis, JA, Page, HM, Pratten, J, Ready, D, Rittschof, D, Spratt, DA, Terlizzi, A, and Thomason, JC. "Techniques for the Quantification of Biofouling." In Biofouling, 319-332. January 1, 2010. Full Text

Christy, JH, and Rittschof, D. "Deception in visual and chemical communications in crustaceans." In Chemical Communications in Crustaceans,edited by M Thiel and T Breithupt, 313-333. New York: Springer, 2010.

Choong, AMF, Maki, JS, Ikhwan, JTB, Chen, C-L, Rittschof, D, and Teo, SL-M. "Pharmaceuticals as antifoulants: Inhibition of growth & effects on adhesion of marine bacteria." In Biofouling : Types, Impact, and Anti-fouling,edited by J Chan and S Wong. New York: Nova Science Publishers, 2010.

Rittschof, D. "Trends in marine biofouling research." In Advances in Marine Antifouling Coatings and Technologies,edited by C Hellio and D Yebra, 725-748. Oxford; Boca Raton: Woodhead ; CRC, 2009.

Rittschof, D. "Novel antifouling coatings: a multiconceptual approach." In Marine and Industrial Biofouling,edited by H-C Flemming, PS Murthy, R Venkatesan, and KE Cooksey, 179-188. Berlin; New York: Springer, 2009.

Rittschof, D. "Hermit crabs." In Encyclopedia of Tidepools and Rocky Shores,edited by MW Denny and SD Gaines, 273-275. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2007.

Rittschof, D. "Natural products antifoulants and coatings development." In Marine Chemical Ecology,edited by JB McClintock and BJ Baker, 543-566. Boca Raton, Fla: CRC Press, 2001.

Rittschof, D, and Parker, KK. "Cooperative antifouling testing : A novel multisector approach." In Recent Advances in Marine Biotechnology, Vol. 6, Bio-organic compounds: chemistry and biomedical applications,edited by M Fingerman and R Nagabhushanam, 239-253. Enfield, (NH): Science Publishers, 2001.


Darnell, MZ, Rittschof, CC, Rittschof, J, Beach, C, and Rittschof, D. "Autotomy of the major claw stimulates molting and suppresses feeding in fiddler crabs(Accepted)." Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 509 (December 1, 2018): 66-70. Full Text

Fears, KP, Orihuela, B, Rittschof, D, and Wahl, KJ. "Acorn Barnacles Secrete Phase-Separating Fluid to Clear Surfaces Ahead of Cement Deposition." Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden Wurttemberg, Germany) 5, no. 6 (June 2018): 1700762-null. Full Text

Li, H-X, Ma, L-S, Lin, L, Ni, Z-X, Xu, X-R, Shi, H-H, Yan, Y, Zheng, G-M, and Rittschof, D. "Microplastics in oysters Saccostrea cucullata along the Pearl River Estuary, China." Environmental Pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987) 236 (May 2018): 619-625. Full Text

Ederth, T, Lerm, M, Orihuela De Diaz, B, and Rittschof, D. "The resistance of zwitterionic peptide monolayers to biofouling(Accepted)." Langmuir (January 1, 2018). Full Text

Gatley-Montross, CM, Finlay, JA, Aldred, N, Cassady, H, Destino, JF, Orihuela, B, Hickner, MA, Clare, AS, Rittschof, D, Holm, ER, and Detty, MR. "Multivariate analysis of attachment of biofouling organisms in response to material surface characteristics." Biointerphases 12, no. 5 (December 29, 2017): 051003-. Full Text

Allen, AS, Seymour, AC, and Rittschof, D. "Chemoreception drives plastic consumption in a hard coral." Marine Pollution Bulletin 124, no. 1 (November 2017): 198-205. Full Text

Rittschof, D. "Off the Shelf Fouling Management." Marine Drugs 15, no. 6 (June 14, 2017). (Review) Full Text

So, CR, Scancella, JM, Fears, KP, Essock-Burns, T, Haynes, SE, Leary, DH, Diana, Z, Wang, C, North, S, Oh, CS, Wang, Z, Orihuela, B, Rittschof, D, Spillmann, CM, and Wahl, KJ. "Oxidase Activity of the Barnacle Adhesive Interface Involves Peroxide-Dependent Catechol Oxidase and Lysyl Oxidase Enzymes." ACS applied materials & interfaces 9, no. 13 (April 2017): 11493-11505. Full Text

Essock-Burns, T, Gohad, NV, Orihuela, B, Mount, AS, Spillmann, CM, Wahl, KJ, and Rittschof, D. "Barnacle biology before, during and after settlement and metamorphosis: a study of the interface." The Journal of experimental biology 220, no. Pt 2 (January 2017): 194-207. Full Text

So, CR, Fears, KP, Leary, DH, Scancella, JM, Wang, Z, Liu, JL, Orihuela, B, Rittschof, D, Spillmann, CM, and Wahl, KJ. "Sequence basis of Barnacle Cement Nanostructure is Defined by Proteins with Silk Homology." Scientific Reports 6 (November 8, 2016): 36219-null. Full Text


Rittschof, D, Hench, J, Darnell, MZ, and Chen, J. "Blue Crab Movements in a Wind Driven System: Summer and Fall Movements of Adults." March 2016.

Sison, J, Orihuela, B, Rittschof, D, and Dickinson, GH. "CHARACTERIZING KEY PROTEINS THAT CONTRIBUTE TO BARNACLE ADHESION." August 2015.


Essock-Burns, T, Leary, D, Solderbloom, E, Orihuela, B, Moseley, A, Spillmann, C, Wahl, K, and Rittschof, D. "Use of Arthropod Wound Healing Mechanisms in Barnacles Amphibalanus (=Balanus) amphitrite." April 2015.

Essock-Burns, T, Tarrell, A, Mathai, P, Gohad, NV, Mount, AS, Maki, JS, and Rittschof, D. "Interactions between biofilm bacteria and barnacles Balanus amphitrite." April 2013.

Wahl, KJ, Burden, DK, Barlow, DE, Spillmann, CM, Everett, RK, and Rittschof, D. "Microscopic and spectroscopic studies of bioadhesive interfaces." August 19, 2012.

Burden, DK, Barlow, DE, Spillmann, CM, Everett, RK, Rittschof, D, Orihuela, B, and Wahl, KJ. "In situ analysis of spatial and temporal variations in newly formed barnacle adhesive." August 19, 2012.

Rittschof, D, Dickinson, GH, Wahl, KJ, Barlow, D, Orihuela, B, Vega, IE, and Everett, R. "Barnacle Glue, is curing like blood clotting?." April 2012.



Selected Grants

Barnacles and Expertise for Antifouling, Foul Release and Adhesion Research awarded by Office of Naval Research (Principal Investigator). 2016 to 2019

Determining Microbiiomes on Roofing Shingles awarded by GAF (Principal Investigator). 2017 to 2018

Plastics as food mimics awarded by Oak Foundation (Principal Investigator). 2016 to 2018

The Barnacle Adhesive System and the transition to mineralization awarded by Office of Naval Research (Principal Investigator). 2014 to 2017

Assessing the effect of environment on barnacle settlement, adhesion and biomineralization awarded by The College of New Jersey (Principal Investigator). 2014 to 2017

Effects of Environment on Blue Crab Size: Fisheries Science Place Based Learning awarded by NC Department of Environmental Quality (Principal Investigator). 2015 to 2017

Crab-Crane Conservation Coupling: 2014 awarded by Nicholls State University (Principal Investigator). 2015 to 2016

Effects of Environment on Blue Crab Size: A Reciprocal Transplant Study awarded by NC Sea Grant (Principal Investigator). 2015 to 2016

REU: Undergraduate Research in Estuarine and Coastal Marine Systems awarded by National Science Foundation (Co-Principal Investigator). 2012 to 2016

Barnacles and Expertise for Antifoulilng, Foul Release and Adhesion Research awarded by Office of Naval Research (Principal Investigator). 2012 to 2014