Gregory Allan Wray

Professor of Biology

Office: 
125 Science Drive, 4104 French Family Science Center, Durham, NC 27708
Campus Box: 
90338
Phone: 
(919) 684-6696
Fax: 
919-660-7293

Lab Site: http://www.biology.duke.edu/wraylab

Research Interests: 

I study the evolution of genes and genomes with the broad aim of understanding the origins of biological diversity. My approach focuses on changes in the expression of genes using both empirical and computational approaches and spans scales of biological organization from single nucleotides through gene networks to entire genomes. At the finer end of this spectrum of scale, I am focusing on understanding the functional consequences and fitness components of specific genetic variants within regulatory sequences of several genes associated with ecologically relevant traits. At the other end of the scale, I am developing molecular and analytical methods to detect changes in gene function throughout entire genomes, including statistical frameworks for detecting natural selection on regulatory elements and empirical approaches to identify functional variation in transcriptional regulation. At intermediate scales, I am investigating functional variation within a dense gene network in the context of wild populations and natural perturbations. My research leverages the advantages of several different model systems, but primarily focuses on sea urchins and primates (including humans).

I study the evolution of genes and genomes with the broad aim of understanding the origins of biological diversity. My approach focuses on changes in the expression of genes using both empirical and computational approaches and spans scales of biological organization from single nucleotides through gene networks to entire genomes. At the finer end of this spectrum of scale, I am focusing on understanding the functional consequences and fitness components of specific genetic variants within regulatory sequences of several genes associated with ecologically relevant traits. At the other end of the scale, I am developing molecular and analytical methods to detect changes in gene function throughout entire genomes, including statistical frameworks for detecting natural selection on regulatory elements and empirical approaches to identify functional variation in transcriptional regulation. At intermediate scales, I am investigating functional variation within a dense gene network in the context of wild populations and natural perturbations. My research leverages the advantages of several different model systems, but primarily focuses on sea urchins and primates (including humans).

Education

  • Ph.D. 1987, Duke University

  • B.S. 1981, College of William and Mary

Papers Published

Nodal and BMP expression during the transition to pentamery in the sea urchin Heliocidaris erythrogramma: insights into patterning the enigmatic echinoderm body plan., 2, 2017
Koop, D; Cisternas, P; Morris, VB; Strbenac, D; Yang, JYH; Wray, GA; Byrne, M, BMC Developmental Biology. 17 vol. (1); pp. 4

Genomic characterization of the evolutionary potential of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis facing ocean acidification., 1, 2017
Runcie, DE; Dorey, N; Garfield, DA; Stumpp, M; Dupont, S; Wray, GA, Genome Biology and Evolution.

Comparative Developmental Transcriptomics Reveals Rewiring of a Highly Conserved Gene Regulatory Network during a Major Life History Switch in the Sea Urchin Genus Heliocidaris., 3, 2016
Israel, JW; Martik, ML; Byrne, M; Raff, EC; Raff, RA; McClay, DR; Wray, GA, PLoS biology. 14 vol. (3); pp. e1002391

Whole-Genome Sequences of Agricultural, Host-Associated Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni Strains., 1, 2016
Dutta, V; Altermann, E; Olson, J; Wray, GA; Siletzky, RM; Kathariou, S, Genome Announcements. 4 vol. (4);

EchinoDB, an application for comparative transcriptomics of deeply-sampled clades of echinoderms., 1, 2016
Janies, DA; Witter, Z; Linchangco, GV; Foltz, DW; Miller, AK; Kerr, AM; Jay, J; Reid, RW; Wray, GA, BMC Bioinformatics. 17 pp. 48

Evolutionary Divergence of Gene and Protein Expression in the Brains of Humans and Chimpanzees., 8, 2015
Bauernfeind, AL; Soderblom, EJ; Turner, ME; Moseley, MA; Ely, JJ; Hof, PR; Sherwood, CC; Wray, GA; Babbitt, CC, Genome Biology and Evolution. 7 vol. (8); pp. 2276-2288

Analysis of synaptic gene expression in the neocortex of primates reveals evolutionary changes in glutamatergic neurotransmission., 6, 2015
Muntané, G; Horvath, JE; Hof, PR; Ely, JJ; Hopkins, WD; Raghanti, MA; Lewandowski, AH; Wray, GA; Sherwood, CC, Cerebral Cortex. 25 vol. (6); pp. 1596-1607

Evolution of gene expression network underlying a disease state, 4, 2015
Babbitt, CC; Pfefferle, LW; Crawford, GE; Wray, GA, Integrative and Comparative Biology (BioOne). 55 pp. E7-E7

Differences in energy metabolism in the brains of humans and chimpanzees: a study of protein expression, 3, 2015
Bauernfeind, AL; Reyzer, ML; Caprioli, RM; Ely, JJ; Babbitt, CC; Wray, GA; Hof, PR; Sherwood, CC, American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 156 pp. 80-80

Evolution of gene expression network underlying a disease state in humans and non-human primates, 3, 2015
Babbitt, CC; Wray, GA, American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 156 pp. 74-74

Transcriptomic analysis of Nodal- and BMP-associated genes during juvenile development of the sea urchin Heliocidaris erythrogramma., 12, 2015
Byrne, M; Koop, D; Cisternas, P; Strbenac, D; Yang, JYH; Wray, GA, Marine Genomics. 24 Pt 1 pp. 41-45

The PsychENCODE project., 12, 2015
Akbarian, S; Liu, C; Knowles, JA; Vaccarino, FM; Farnham, PJ; Crawford, GE; Jaffe, AE; Pinto, D; Dracheva, S; Geschwind, DH; Mill, J; Nairn, AC; Abyzov, A; Pochareddy, S; Prabhakar, S; Weissman, S; Sullivan, PF; State, MW; Weng, Z; Peters, MA; White, KP; Gerstein, MB; Amiri, A; Armoskus, C; Ashley-Koch, AE; Bae, T; Beckel-Mitchener, A; Berman, BP; Coetzee, GA; Coppola, G; Francoeur, N; Fromer, M; Gao, R; Grennan, K; Herstein, J; Kavanagh, DH; Ivanov, NA; Jiang, Y; Kitchen, RR; Kozlenkov, A et al., Nature Neuroscience. 18 vol. (12); pp. 1707-1712

High spatial resolution proteomic comparison of the brain in humans and chimpanzees., 10, 2015
Bauernfeind, AL; Reyzer, ML; Caprioli, RM; Ely, JJ; Babbitt, CC; Wray, GA; Hof, PR; Sherwood, CC, The Journal of Comparative Neurology. 523 vol. (14); pp. 2043-2061

Human-chimpanzee differences in a FZD8 enhancer alter cell-cycle dynamics in the developing neocortex, 1, 2015
Boyd, JL; Skove, SL; Rouanet, JP; Pilaz, LJ; Bepler, T; Gordân, R; Wray, GA; Silver, DL, Current Biology. 25 vol. (6); pp. 772-779

Population genomics reveal recent speciation and rapid evolutionary adaptation in polar bears., 5, 2014
Liu, S; Lorenzen, ED; Fumagalli, M; Li, B; Harris, K; Xiong, Z; Zhou, L; Korneliussen, TS; Somel, M; Babbitt, C; Wray, G; Li, J; He, W; Wang, Z; Fu, W; Xiang, X; Morgan, CC; Doherty, A; O'Connell, MJ; McInerney, JO; Born, EW; Dalén, L; Dietz, R; Orlando, L; Sonne, C; Zhang, G; Nielsen, R; Willerslev, E; Wang, J, Cell. 157 vol. (4); pp. 785-794

Transcriptomic analysis of the highly derived radial body plan of a sea urchin., 4, 2014
Wygoda, JA; Yang, Y; Byrne, M; Wray, GA, Genome Biology and Evolution. 6 vol. (4); pp. 964-973

Differential gene and protein expression in the human and chimpanzee brain: A comparison using high-throughput techniques, 3, 2014
Bauernfeind, AL; Soderblom, EJ; Turner, ME; Moseley, AM; Ely, JJ; Hof, PR; Sherwood, CC; Wray, GA; Babbitt, CC, American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 153 pp. 73-73

Does evolutionary theory need a rethink?, 10, 2014
Laland, K; Uller, T; Feldman, M; Sterelny, K; Müller, GB; Moczek, A; Jablonka, E; Odling-Smee, J; Wray, GA; Hoekstra, HE; Futuyma, DJ; Lenski, RE; Mackay, TFC; Schluter, D; Strassmann, JE, Nature. 514 vol. (7521); pp. 161-164

High-coverage sequencing and annotated assemblies of the budgerigar genome., 1, 2014
Ganapathy, G; Howard, JT; Ward, JM; Li, J; Li, B; Li, Y; Xiong, Y; Zhang, Y; Zhou, S; Schwartz, DC; Schatz, M; Aboukhalil, R; Fedrigo, O; Bukovnik, L; Wang, T; Wray, G; Rasolonjatovo, I; Winer, R; Knight, JR; Koren, S; Warren, WC; Zhang, G; Phillippy, AM; Jarvis, ED, GigaScience. 3 pp. 11

Shifts in the Expression of Developmental Regulatory Genes Involved in the Evolution of a Novel Life History Difference, 0, 2014
Wygoda, JA; Byrne, M; Mcclay, DR; Wray, GA, Integrative and Comparative Biology (BioOne). 54 pp. E230-E230

Developmental Transcriptome of Heliociaris erythrogramma - from bilateral larva to radial juvenile, 0, 2014
Wygoda, JA; Koop, D; Yang, J; Wray, GA; Byrne, M, Integrative and Comparative Biology (BioOne). 54 pp. E372-E372

Social environment influences the relationship between genotype and gene expression in wild baboons., 5, 2013
Runcie, DE; Wiedmann, RT; Archie, EA; Altmann, J; Wray, GA; Alberts, SC; Tung, J, Philosophical Transactions B. 368 vol. (1618); pp. 20120345

Social environment influences the relationship between genotype and gene expression in wild baboons., 2013
Runcie, DE; Wiedmann, RT; Archie, EA; Altmann, J; Wray, GA; Alberts, SC; Tung, J, Philosophical Transactions B. (2013) 368 vol. (1618); pp. 20120345

The impact of gene expression variation on the robustness and evolvability of a developmental gene regulatory network., 2013
Garfield, DA; Runcie, DE; Babbitt, CC; Haygood, R; Nielsen, WJ; Wray, GA, PLoS biology. (2013) 11 vol. (10); pp. e1001696

Genomics and the evolution of phenotypic traits, 1, 2013
Wray, GA, Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics. 44 pp. 51-72

Insights from a chimpanzee adipose stromal cells population: opportunities for adult stem cells to expand primate functional genomics, 0, 2013
L.W. Pfefferle and G.A. Wray, Genome Biology and Evolution. 5 pp. 1995-2005

Phenotypic plasticity and the developmental regulatory network in the purple sea urchin, 0, 2013
Runcie, DE; Garfield, DA; Babbitt, CC; Pfefferle, A; Nielsen, WJ; Wray, GA, ECHINODERMS IN A CHANGING WORLD. pp. 300-301

Evolution of an embryonic gene regulatory network in the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, 0, 2013
Wray, GA; Garfield, D; Runcie, D, ECHINODERMS IN A CHANGING WORLD. pp. 276-276

Insights from a chimpanzee adipose stromal cell population: opportunities for adult stem cells to expand primate functional genomics., 0, 2013
Pfefferle, LW; Wray, GA, Genome Biology and Evolution. 5 vol. (10); pp. 1995-2005

Genetics of gene expression responses to temperature stress in a sea urchin gene network., 9, 2012
Runcie, DE; Garfield, DA; Babbitt, CC; Wygoda, JA; Mukherjee, S; Wray, GA, Molecular Ecology. 21 vol. (18); pp. 4547-4562

Extensive evolutionary changes in regulatory element activity during human origins are associated with altered gene expression and positive selection., 6, 2012
Shibata, Y; Sheffield, NC; Fedrigo, O; Babbitt, CC; Wortham, M; Tewari, AK; London, D; Song, L; Lee, B-K; Iyer, VR; Parker, SCJ; Margulies, EH; Wray, GA; Furey, TS; Crawford, GE, PLoS genetics. 8 vol. (6); pp. e1002789

Conservation and function of noncoding RNAs in primate evolution, 4, 2012
Babbitt, CC; Pfefferle, LW; Fedrigo, O; Wray, GA, Integrative and Comparative Biology (BioOne). 52 pp. E8-E8

Population genetics of cis-regulatory sequences that operate during embryonic development in the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus., 3, 2012
Garfield, D; Haygood, R; Nielsen, WJ; Wray, GA, Evolution and Development. 14 vol. (2); pp. 152-167

Enamel thickness in Microcebus murinus and Macaca mulana and the evolutionary genetics of enamel matrix proteins in hominoids., 0, 2012
Horvath, JE; Wu, C; Toler, M; Fedrigo, O; Pfefferle, LW; Moore, A; Ramachandran, GL; Babbitt, CC; Jernvall, J; Wray, GA; Wall, CE, American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 147 pp. 168-168

Revisiting cell lineage and cell fate in light of the evolution of axis formation in Heliocidaris erythrogramma, 0, 2012
Smith, MS; Wray, GA; Raff, RA, Evolution & Development.

Changes in gene expression associated with reproductive maturation in wild female baboons, 0, 2012
Babbitt, CC; Tung, J; Wray, GA; Alberts, SC, Genome Biology and Evolution. 4 vol. (2); pp. 102-109

Evolution. CNCing is believing., 8, 2011
Wray, GA, Science. 333 vol. (6045); pp. 946-947

Genomic signatures of diet-related shifts during human origins., 4, 2011
Babbitt, CC; Warner, LR; Fedrigo, O; Wall, CE; Wray, GA, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London: Biological Sciences. 278 vol. (1708); pp. 961-969

Comparative expression analysis of the phosphocreatine circuit in extant primates: Implications for human brain evolution., 2, 2011
Pfefferle, AD; Warner, LR; Wang, CW; Nielsen, WJ; Babbitt, CC; Fedrigo, O; Wray, GA, Journal of Human Evolution. 60 vol. (2); pp. 205-212

Allele-specific gene expression in a wild nonhuman primate population., 2011
Tung, J; Akinyi, MY; Mutura, S; Altmann, J; Wray, GA; Alberts, SC, Molecular Ecology. (2011) 20 vol. (4); pp. 725-739

Reconstitution of the human biome as the most reasonable solution for epidemics of allergic and autoimmune diseases., 10, 2011
Bilbo, SD; Wray, GA; Perkins, SE; Parker, W, Medical Hypotheses. 77 vol. (4); pp. 494-504

Generation-biased gene expression in a bryophyte model system., 1, 2011
Szövényi, P; Rensing, SA; Lang, D; Wray, GA; Shaw, AJ, Molecular Biology and Evolution. 28 vol. (1); pp. 803-812

Genomic signatures of diet-related shifts during human origins, 0, 2011
Babbitt, CC; Warner, LR; Fedrigo, O; Wall, CE; Wray, GA, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London: Biological Sciences. 278 vol. (1708); pp. 961-969

A potential role for glucose transporters in the evolution of human brain size., 0, 2011
Fedrigo, O; Pfefferle, AD; Babbitt, CC; Haygood, R; Wall, CE; Wray, GA, Brain, behavior and evolution. 78 vol. (4); pp. 315-326

Genomic signatures of diet-related shifts in primate evolution, 2011
Babbitt, CC; Warner, LR; Fedrigo, O; Wall, CE; Wray, GA, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B. (2011) 278 pp. 961-969

Molecular evidence that a metabolic trade-off contributed to human brain size evolution, 2011
Fedrigo, O; Pfefferele, AD; Babbitt, CC; Haygood, R; Wall, CE; Wray, GA, Brain, Behavior, and Evolution. (2011) 78 pp. 315-326

Coordinated genome-wide modifications within proximal promoter cis-regulatory elements during vertebrate evolution., 2011
Yokoyama, KD; Thorne, JL; Wray, GA, Genome Biology and Evolution. (2011) 3 pp. 66-74

Expression analysis of the phosphocreatine circuit in extant primates: Implications for human brain evolution, 2011
Pfefferle, AD; Warner, LR; Wang, CW; Nielsen, WJ; Babbitt, CC; Fedrigo, O; Wray, GA, Journal for Human Evolution. (2011) 60 pp. 205-211

Generation-biased gene expression in a bryophyte model systems, 2011
P. Szovenyi, S.A. Rensing, D. Lang, G.A. Wray, A.J. Shaw, Molecular Biology and Evolution. (2011) 28 pp. 803-812

A pipeline to determine RT-QPCR control genes for evolutionary studies: application to primate gene expression across multiple tissues., 9, 2010
Fedrigo, O; Warner, LR; Pfefferle, AD; Babbitt, CC; Cruz-Gordillo, P; Wray, GA, PloS one. 5 vol. (9); pp. e12489

Evolutionary genetics in wild primates: combining genetic approaches with field studies of natural populations., 8, 2010
Tung, J; Alberts, SC; Wray, GA, Trends in Genetics. 26 vol. (8); pp. 353-362

Contrasts between adaptive coding and noncoding changes during human evolution., 2010
Haygood, R; Babbitt, CC; Fedrigo, O; Wray, GA, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of USA. (2010) 107 vol. (17); pp. 7853-7857

Multiple Functional Variants in cis Modulate PDYN Expression., 2010
Babbitt, CC; Silverman, JS; Haygood, R; Reininga, JM; Rockman, MV; Wray, GA, Molecular Biology and Evolution. (2010) 27 vol. (2); pp. 465-479

Both noncoding and protein-coding RNAs contribute to gene expression evolution in the primate brain., 2010
Babbitt, CC; Fedrigo, O; Pfefferle, AD; Boyle, AP; Horvath, JE; Furey, TS; Wray, GA, Genome Biology and Evolution. (2010) 2 pp. 67-79

Developmental evolution: how beetles evolved their shields., 2010
Fédrigo, O; Wray, GA, Current Biology. (2010) 20 vol. (2); pp. R64-R66

Evolution of functional genetic variation at immune loci in wild baboons., 0, 2010
Tung, J; Alberts, SC; Wray, GA, American Journal of Physical Anthropology. pp. 231-231

A pipeline to determine RT-QPCR control genes for evolutionary studies: Application to primate gene expression across multiple tissues, 0, 2010
Fedrigo, O; Warner, LR; Pfefferle, AD; Babbitt, CC; Cruz-Gordillo, P; Wray, GA, PloS one. 5 vol. (9); pp. 1-7

Whole-genome positive selection and habitat-driven evolution in a shallow and a deep-sea urchin., 0, 2010
Oliver, TA; Garfield, DA; Manier, MK; Haygood, R; Wray, GA; Palumbi, SR, Genome Biology and Evolution. 2 pp. 800-814

Extensive changes in the expression of the opioid genes between humans and chimpanzees., 0, 2010
Cruz-Gordillo, P; Fedrigo, O; Wray, GA; Babbitt, CC, Brain, behavior and evolution. 76 vol. (2); pp. 154-162

The evolution of gene regulatory interactions, 2010
Garfield, DA; Wray, GA, BioScience (BioOne). (2010) 60 vol. (1); pp. 15-23

Genomic features that predict allelic imbalance in humans suggest patterns of constraint on gene expression variation., 9, 2009
Tung, J; Fédrigo, O; Haygood, R; Mukherjee, S; Wray, GA, Molecular Biology and Evolution. 26 vol. (9); pp. 2047-2059

Functional consequences of genetic variation in primates on tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression in vitro., 9, 2009
Warner, LR; Babbitt, CC; Primus, AE; Severson, TF; Haygood, R; Wray, GA, Brain Research. 1288 pp. 1-8

Measuring spatial preferences at fine-scale resolution identifies known and novel cis-regulatory element candidates and functional motif-pair relationships., 7, 2009
Yokoyama, KD; Ohler, U; Wray, GA, Nucleic Acids Research. 37 vol. (13); pp. e92

Evolution of a malaria resistance gene in wild primates., 2009
Tung, J; Primus, A; Bouley, AJ; Severson, TF; Alberts, SC; Wray, GA, Nature. (2009) 460 vol. (7253); pp. 388-391

Comparative embryology without a microscope: using genomic approaches to understand the evolution of development., 0, 2009
Garfield, DA; Wray, GA, Journal of Biology. 8 vol. (7); pp. 65

Spatial preferences identify known and novel cis-regulatory element candidates and functional motif-pair relationships, 0, 2009
Yokoyama, KD; Ohler, U; Wray, GA, Nucleic Acids Research. 37 vol. (13); pp. e92

Genetics. Enhancing gene regulation., 9, 2008
Wray, GA; Babbitt, CC, Science. 321 vol. (5894); pp. 1300-1301

Development and application of a phylogenomic toolkit: resolving the evolutionary history of Madagascar's lemurs., 3, 2008
Horvath, JE; Weisrock, DW; Embry, SL; Fiorentino, I; Balhoff, JP; Kappeler, P; Wray, GA; Willard, HF; Yoder, AD, Genome research. 18 vol. (3); pp. 489-499

Evolutionary and ecological functional genomics., 2, 2008
Mitchell-Olds, T; Feder, M; Wray, G, Heredity. 100 vol. (2); pp. 101-102

Reply to "Rapidly evolving human promoter regions", 0, 2008
Haygood, R; Fedrigo, O; Wray, GA, Nature Genetics. 40 vol. (11); pp. 1263-1264

Enhancing gene regulation, 0, 2008
Wray, GA; Babbitt, CC, Science. 321 vol. (5894); pp. 1300-1301

Promoter regions of many neural- and nutrition-related genes have experienced positive selection during human evolution., 9, 2007
Haygood, R; Fedrigo, O; Hanson, B; Yokoyama, K-D; Wray, GA, Nature Genetics. 39 vol. (9); pp. 1140-1144

The evolutionary significance of cis-regulatory mutations., 3, 2007
Wray, GA, Nature Reviews Genetics. 8 vol. (3); pp. 206-216

Guest in radio interview on evolutionary genomics for talk show "Radio in Vivo", February 5, 2007
G.A. Wray, (February 5, 2007)

Growth and patterning are evolutionarily dissociated in the vestigial wing discs of workers of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta., 12, 2007
Bowsher, JH; Wray, GA; Abouheif, E, Journal of Experimental Zoology Part B: Molecular and Developmental Evolution. 308 vol. (6); pp. 769-776

Developmental Genes and the Evolution of Morphology, 12, 2007
Wray, GA, pp. 147-152

When two is better than one., 10, 2007
Babbitt, CC; Haygood, R; Wray, GA, Cell. 131 vol. (2); pp. 225-227

Ontogeny in the fossil record: Diversification of body plans and the evolution of "aberrant" symmetry in Paleozoic echinoderms, 0, 2007
Sumrall, CD; Wray, GA, Paleobiology. 33 vol. (1); pp. 149-163

When two is better than one, 0, 2007
Babbitt, ; CC, ; Haygood, R; Wray, GA, Cell. 19 vol. (2); pp. 3-4

Convergent adaptation in humans: the genetic basis of lactase persistence in Africa, 2007
Tishkoff, ; A, S; Reed, FA; Ranciaro, A; Voight, BF; Babbitt, CC; Silverman, JS; Powell, K; Mortensen, H; Hirbo, JB; Osman, M; Ibrahim, M; Omar, SA; Lema, G; N, TB; Ghori, J; Bumpstead, S; Pritchard, JK; Wray, GA; Deloukas, P, Nature Genetics. (2007) 39 vol. (1); pp. 31-40

Convergent adaptation of human lactase persistence in Africa and Europe, 0, 2007
Tishkoff, SA; Reed, FA; Ranciaro, A; Voight, BF; Babbitt, CC; Silverman, JS; Powell, K; Mortensen, HM; Hirbo, JB; Osman, M; Ibrahim, M; Omar, SA; Lema, G; Nyambo, TB; Ghori, J; Bumpstead, S; Pritchard, JK; Wray, GA; Deloukas, P, Nature Genetics. 39 vol. (1); pp. 31-40

The evolution of embryonic gene expression in sea urchins., 6, 2006
Wray, GA, Integrative and Comparative Biology (BioOne). 46 vol. (3); pp. 233-242

Functional analysis of cis-regulatory evolution in humans and other primates, 12, 2006
Babbitt, CC; Wray, GA, Integrative and Comparative Biology (BioOne). 46 pp. E6-E6

The genome of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus., 11, 2006
Sea Urchin Genome Sequencing Consortium, ; Sodergren, E; Weinstock, GM; Davidson, EH; Cameron, RA; Gibbs, RA; Angerer, RC; Angerer, LM; Arnone, MI; Burgess, DR; Burke, RD; Coffman, JA; Dean, M; Elphick, MR; Ettensohn, CA; Foltz, KR; Hamdoun, A; Hynes, RO; Klein, WH; Marzluff, W; McClay, DR; Morris, RL; Mushegian, A; Rast, JP; Smith, LC; Thorndyke, MC; Vacquier, VD; Wessel, GM; Wray, G; Zhang, L; Elsik, CG; Ermolaeva, O; Hlavina, W; Hofmann, G; Kitts, P; Landrum, MJ; Mackey, AJ; Maglott, D et al., Science. 314 vol. (5801); pp. 941-952

Endo16 is required for gastrulation in the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus., 10, 2006
Romano, LA; Wray, GA, Development Growth & Differentiation. 48 vol. (8); pp. 487-497

Ancient polymorphism and functional variation in the primate MHC-DQA1 5' cis-regulatory region., 10, 2006
Loisel, DA; Rockman, MV; Wray, GA; Altmann, J; Alberts, SC, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of USA. 103 vol. (44); pp. 16331-16336

The evolutionary dynamics of alpha-satellite., 1, 2006
Rudd, MK; Wray, GA; Willard, HF, Genome research. 16 vol. (1); pp. 88-96

Spot on (and off), 0, 2006
Wray, GA, Nature. 440 vol. (7087); pp. 1001-1002

Evolution: Spot on (and off), 0, 2006
Wray, GA, Nature. 440 vol. (7087); pp. 1001-1002

Tracing the ancestry of the great white shark, Carcharodon carcharias, using morphometric analyses of fossil teeth, 0, 2006
Nyberg, KG; Ciampaglio, CN; Wray, GA, Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 26 vol. (4); pp. 806-814

Developmental control of ambulacral reduction in fossil echinoderms, 0, 2006
Sumrall, CD; Wray, GA, Paleobiology. 33 pp. 149-163

Evolutionary analysis of the well characterized endo16 promoter reveals substantial variation within functional sites., 6, 2005
Balhoff, JP; Wray, GA, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of USA. 102 vol. (24); pp. 8591-8596

Ancient and recent positive selection transformed opioid cis-regulation in humans., 0, 2005
Rockman, MV; Hahn, MW; Soranzo, N; Zimprich, F; Goldstein, DB; Wray, GA, PLoS biology. 3 vol. (12); pp. e387

Arrays in rays: Terminal addition in echinoderms and its correlation with gene expression, 0, 2005
Mooi, R; David, B; Wray, GA, Evolution and Development. 7 vol. (6); pp. 542-555

Positive selection on MMP3 regulation has shaped heart disease risk., 9, 2004
Rockman, MV; Hahn, MW; Soranzo, N; Loisel, DA; Goldstein, DB; Wray, GA, Current Biology. 14 vol. (17); pp. 1531-1539

Population genetic and phylogenetic evidence for positive selection on regulatory mutations at the factor VII locus in humans., 2004
Hahn, MW; Rockman, MV; Soranzo, N; Goldstein, DB; Wray, GA, Genetics. (2004) 167 vol. (2); pp. 867-877

Evolutionary mechanisms that operate on embryonic gene expression in purple sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, 12, 2004
Wray, GA, Integrative and Comparative Biology (BioOne). 44 vol. (6); pp. 668-668

Culture of echinoderm larvae though metamorphosis, 0, 2004
Wray, G. A., C. Kitazawa, and B. Miner, pp. 75-86

Simulations of evolutionary radiations and their application to understanding the probability of a Cambrian explosion, 2004
Levinton, J; Dubb, L; Wray, GA, Journal of Paleontology. (2004) 78 vol. (1); pp. 31-38

Molecular phylogeny of naidid worms (Annelida: Clitellata) based on cytochrome oxidase I, 0, 2004
Bely, AE; Wray, GA, Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 30 vol. (1); pp. 50-63

The Invertebrate Deuterostomes: An Introduction to Their Phylogeny, Reproduction, Development, and Genomics, 0, 2004
Ettensohn, CA; Wessel, GM; Wray, GA, Methods in cell biology. 74 pp. 1-13

Culture of echinoderm larvae through metamorphosis., 0, 2004
Wray, GA; Kitazawa, C; Miner, B, Methods in cell biology. 74 pp. 75-86

Molecular phylogeny of naidid worms (Annelida: Clitellata), 2004
Bely, AE; Wray, GA, Molecular Phylogeny and Evolution. (2004) 30 pp. 50-63

Conservation of Endo16 expression in sea urchins despite evolutionary divergence in both cis and trans-acting components of transcriptional regulation., 9, 2003
Romano, LA; Wray, GA, Development (Cambridge). 130 vol. (17); pp. 4187-4199

The evolution of transcriptional regulation in eukaryotes., 9, 2003
Wray, GA; Hahn, MW; Abouheif, E; Balhoff, JP; Pizer, M; Rockman, MV; Romano, LA, Molecular Biology and Evolution. 20 vol. (9); pp. 1377-1419

The effects of selection against spurious transcription factor binding sites., 6, 2003
Hahn, MW; Stajich, JE; Wray, GA, Molecular Biology and Evolution. 20 vol. (6); pp. 901-906

Positive selection on a human-specific transcription factor binding site regulating IL4 expression., 12, 2003
Rockman, MV; Hahn, MW; Soranzo, N; Goldstein, DB; Wray, GA, Current Biology. 13 vol. (23); pp. 2118-2123

Transcriptional regulation: evolution, 0, 2003
Wray, G.A.,

Transcriptional regulation and the evolution of development., 0, 2003
Wray, GA, International Journal of Developmental Biology. 47 vol. (7-8); pp. 675-684

Identification of asteroid genera with species capable of larval cloning, 0, 2003
Knott, KE; Balser, EJ; Jaeckle, WB; Wray, GA, Biological Bulletin. 204 vol. (3); pp. 246-255

Evolution of the gene network underlying wing polyphenism in ants., 7, 2002
Abouheif, E; Wray, GA, Science. 297 vol. (5579); pp. 249-252

Evolution of a well-characterized embryonic promoter: the Endo16 cis-regulatory system of sea urchins., 7, 2002
Wray, GA, Developmental Biology. 247 vol. (2); pp. 519-519

The g-value paradox., 3, 2002
Hahn, MW; Wray, GA, Evolution and Development. 4 vol. (2); pp. 73-75

Evolution of new developmental roles for orthodenticle and distal-less in the larvae of echinoderms, 2, 2002
Lowe, CJ; Issel Tarver, L; Wray, GA, Evolution & Development. 4 pp. 111-123

Abundant raw material for cis-regulatory evolution in humans., 11, 2002
Rockman, MV; Wray, GA, Molecular Biology and Evolution. 19 vol. (11); pp. 1991-2004

Getting a head in the world, 10, 2002
Bely, AE; Wray, GA, Natural History. 10/02 pp. 30-32

Dating branches on the tree of life using DNA., 0, 2002
Wray, GA, Genome Biology. 3 vol. (1); pp. REVIEWS0001

Gene expression and larval evolution: Changing roles of distal-less and orthodenticle in echinoderm larvae, 0, 2002
Lowe, CJ; Issel-Tarver, L; Wray, GA, Evolution and Development. 4 vol. (2); pp. 111-123

Do convergent developmental mechanisms underlie convergent phenotypes?, 0, 2002
Wray, GA, Brain, behavior and evolution. 59 vol. (5-6); pp. 327-336

Stasis, change, and functional constraint in the evolution of animal body plans, whatever they may be, 2002
Wray, GA; Strathmann, RR, Vie et Milieu. (2002) 52 vol. (4); pp. 189-199

From DNA to diversity - Molecular genetics and the evolution of animal design, 6, 2001
Wray, GA, Science. 292 vol. (5525); pp. 2256-2257

Genomic regulatory systems - Development and evolution, 6, 2001
Wray, GA, Science. 292 vol. (5525); pp. 2256-2257

A world apart - The larval lifestyle may seem alien to us terrestrial bipeds, but it comes quite naturally to most creatures - especially inhabitants of the world's oceans., 3, 2001
Wray, GA, Natural History. 110 vol. (2); pp. 52-+

Rapid appearance of new transcription factor binding sites by local point mutation, 0, 2001
Stone, JR; Wray, GA, Molecular Biology and Evolution. 18 vol. (9); pp. 1764-1770

Evolution of regeneration and fission in annelids: Insights from engrailed- and orthodenticle-class gene expression, 0, 2001
Bely, AE; Wray, GA, Development. 128 vol. (14); pp. 2781-2791

Rapid evolution of cis-regulatory sequences via local point mutations, 0, 2001
Stone, JR; Wray, GA, Molecular Biology and Evolution. 18 vol. (9); pp. 1764-1770

the G-value paradox, 0, 2001
MW Hahn and GA Wray, Evolution and Development.

Developmental regulatory genes and echinoderm evolution., 3, 2000
Wray, GA; Lowe, CJ, Systematic Biology (OUP). 49 vol. (1); pp. 28-51

The evolution and development of left-right asymmetry in echinoderms., 12, 2000
Pizer, M; Wray, GA, Integrative and Comparative Biology. 40 vol. (6); pp. 1173-1173

The evolution of embryonic patterning mechanisms in animals., 12, 2000
Wray, GA, Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology. 11 vol. (6); pp. 385-393

Controversy and consensus in asteroid systernatics: New insights to ordinal and familial relationships, 0, 2000
Emily, K; Wray, GA, Integrative and Comparative Biology. 40 vol. (3); pp. 382-392

The evolution of embryonic patterning mechanisms in animals, 0, 2000
Wray, GA, Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology. 11 vol. (6); pp. 353-393

Gene expression during echinoderm metamorphosis., 0, 2000
Wray, GA, Zygote. 8 Suppl 1 pp. S48-S49

Editorial: Peering ahead (cautiously), 0, 2000
Wray, GA, Evolution and Development. 2 vol. (3); pp. 125-126

The evolution of sea urchin development, 2000
Wray, GA, REGULATORY PROCESSES IN DEVELOPMENT. (2000) 76 pp. 49-60

Rearing larvae of sea urchins and sea stars for developmental studies., 1999
Lowe, CJ; Wray, GA, Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.). (1999) 135 pp. 9-15

A sea urchin genome project: Sequence scan, virtual map, and additional resources, 0, 2000
Cameron, RA; Mahairas, G; Rast, JP; Martinez, P; Biondi, TR; Swartzell, S; Wallace, JC; Poustka, AJ; Livingston, BT; Wray, GA; Ettensohn, CA; Lehrach, H; Britten, RJ; Davidson, EH; Hood, L, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 97 vol. (17); pp. 9514-9518

Peering ahead (cautiously), 0, 2000
Wray, GA, Evolution and Development. 2 vol. (3); pp. 1-2

Developmental regulatory genes and echinoderm evolution, 0, 2000
Wray, GA; Lowe, CJ, Systematic Biology. 49 vol. (1); pp. 151-174

Evolutionary dissociations between homologous genes and homologous structures, 1999
Wray, GA, Novartis Foundation Symposium. (1999) 222 pp. 189-203

The evolutionary and developmental genetic basis of wing polymorphism in ants., 0, 1999
Abouheif, E; Wray, GA, Integrative and Comparative Biology. 39 vol. (5); pp. 12A-12A

Expression of homeobox genes during regeneration and asexual reproduction in an annelid., 0, 1999
Bely, AE; Wray, GA, Integrative and Comparative Biology. 39 vol. (5); pp. 12A-12A

Chronicling the birth of a discipline., 0, 1999
Raff, RA; Arthur, W; Carroll, SB; Coates, MI; Wray, G, Evolution & development. 1 vol. (1); pp. 1-2

When is homology not homology?, 1998
Wray, GA; Abouheif, E, Current Opinion in Genetics & Development. (1998) 8 vol. (6); pp. 675-680

Promoter logic, 1998
Wray, GA, Science. (1998) 279 vol. (5358); pp. 1871-1872

Cloning of zebrafish vsx1: Expression of a paired-like homeobox gene during CNS development, 0, 1998
Passini, MA; Kurtzman, AL; Canger, AK; Asch, WS; Wray, GA; Raymond, PA; Schechter, N, Developmental Genetics. 23 vol. (2); pp. 128-141

Erratum: Radical alterations in the roles of homeobox genes during echinoderm evolution (Nature (1997) 389 (718-721)), 0, 1998
Lowe, CJ; Wray, GA, Nature. 392 vol. (6671); pp. 105-

Homology and developmental genes, 11, 1997
Abouheif, E; Akam, M; Dickinson, WJ; Holland, PWH; Meyer, A; Patel, NH; Raff, RA; Roth, VL; Wray, GA, Trends in Genetics. 13 vol. (11); pp. 432-433

Radical alterations in the roles of homeobox genes during echinoderm evolution, 1997
Lowe, CJ; Wray, GA, Nature. (1997) 389 vol. (6652); pp. 718-721

The 'paradox' of polyembryony: A review of the cases and a hypothesis for its evolution, 1997
Craig, SF; Slobodkin, LB; Wray, GA; Biermann, CH, Evolutionary Ecology. (1997) 11 vol. (2); pp. 127-143

The origin and evolution of animal appendages, 1997
Panganiban, G; Irvine, SM; Lowe, C; Roehl, H; Corley, LS; Sherbon, B; Grenier, JK; Fallon, JF; Kimble, J; Walker, M; Wray, GA; Swalla, BJ; Martindale, MQ; Carroll, SB, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of USA. (1997) 94 vol. (10); pp. 5162-5166

Archenteron precursor cells can organize secondary axial structures in the sea urchin embryo, 1997
Benink, H; Wray, G; Hardin, J, Development (Cambridge). (1997) 124 vol. (18); pp. 3461-3470

Molecular evidence for deep Precambrian divergences among metazoan phyla, 1996
Wray, GA; Levinton, JS; Shapiro, LH, Science. (1996) 274 vol. (5287); pp. 568-581

Parallel evolution of nonfeeding larvae in echinoids, 1996
Wray, GA, Systematic Biology. (1996) 45 vol. (3); pp. 308-322

The 'paradox' of polyembryony, 0, 1995
Craig, SF; Slobodkin, LB; Wray, G, Trends in Ecology & Evolution. 10 vol. (9); pp. 371-372

Punctuated evolution of embryos, 1995
Wray, GA, Science. (1995) 267 vol. (5201); pp. 1115-1116

Comparing patterns of evolution: larval and adult life history stages and ribosomal RNA of post-Palaeozoic echinoids, 1995
Smith, AB; Littlewood, DTJ; Wray, GA, Philosophical Transactions - Royal Society of London, B. (1995) 349 vol. (1327); pp. 11-18

The evolution of echinoderm development is driven by several distinct factors, 0, 1994
Wray, GA; Bely, AE, Development. 120 vol. (SUPPL.); pp. 97-106

The evolution of echinoderm development is driven by several distinct factors., 0, 1994
Wray, GA; Bely, AE, Development (Cambridge, England). Supplement. pp. 97-106

Developmental evolution: New paradigms and paradoxes, 1994
Wray, GA, Developmental Genetics. (1994) 15 vol. (1); pp. 1-6

The evolution of cell lineage in echinoderms, 1994
Wray, GA, Integrative and Comparative Biology (BioOne). (1994) 34 vol. (3); pp. 353-363

Rates of evolution in developmental processes, 0, 1992
Wray, GA, American Zoologist. 32 vol. (1); pp. 123-134

The evolution of larval morphology during the post-Paleozoic radiation of echinoids, 1992
Wray, GA, Paleobiology. (1992) 18 vol. (3); pp. 258-287

Rates of evolution in developmental processes, 1992
Wray, GA, Integrative and Comparative Biology (BioOne). (1992) 32 vol. (1); pp. 123-134

Mechanism of an Alternate Type of Echinoderm Blastula Formation: The Wrinkled Blastula of the Sea Urchin Heliocidaris erythrogramma. (direct development/echinoderm development/morphogenesis/sea urchin embryos/wrinkled blastula), 8, 1991
Henry, JJ; Wray, GA; Raff, RA, Development Growth & Differentiation. 33 vol. (4); pp. 317-328

Mechanism of an alternate type of echinoderm blastula formation: The wrinkled blastula of the sea urchin Heliocidaris erythrogramma, 0, 1991
Hernry, JJ; Wray, GA; Raff, RA, Development Growth & Differentiation. 33 vol. (4); pp. 317-328

The evolution of developmental strategy in marine invertebrates, 1991
Wray, GA; Raff, RA, Trends in Ecology and Evolution. (1991) 6 vol. (2); pp. 45-50

Heterochrony and other mechanisms of radical evolutionary change in early development, 0, 1990
Raff, RA; Parr, BA; Parks, AL; Wray, GA, Evolutionary innovations. pp. 71-98

Novel origins of lineage founder cells in the direct-developing sea urchin Heliocidaris erythrogramma, 1990
Wray, GA; Raff, RA, Developmental Biology. (1990) 141 vol. (1); pp. 41-54

An analysis of the phenotypic effects of certain colour pattern genes in Heliconius (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae), 1990
Nijhout, HF; Wray, GA; Gilbert, LE, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. (1990) 40 vol. (4); pp. 357-372

The dorsoventral axis is specified prior to first cleavage in the direct developing sea urchin Heliocidaris erythrogramma, 1990
Henry, JJ; Wray, GA; Raff, RA, Development (Cambridge). (1990) 110 vol. (3); pp. 875-884

The "Lecithotrophic" Sea Urchin Heliocidaris erythrogramma lacks typical yolk platelets and yolk glycoproteins, 1990
Scott, LB; Lennarz, WJ; Raff, RA; Wray, GA, Developmental Biology. (1990) 138 vol. (1); pp. 188-193

MOLECULAR HETEROCHRONIES AND HETEROTOPIES IN EARLY ECHINOID DEVELOPMENT, 1989
WRAY, GA; MCCLAY, DR, Evolution. (1989) 43 vol. (4); pp. 803-813

Early inductive interactions are involved in restricting cell fates of mesomeres in sea urchin embryos, 1989
Henry, JJ; Amemiya, S; Wray, GA; Raff, RA, Developmental Biology. (1989) 136 vol. (1); pp. 140-153

Heterochrony: developmental mechanisms and evolutionary results, 1989
Raff, RA; Wray, GA, Journal of Evolutionary Biology. (1989) 2 vol. (6); pp. 409-434

Evolutionary modification of cell lineage in the direct-developing sea urchin Heliocidaris erythrogramma, 1989
Wray, GA; Raff, RA, Developmental Biology. (1989) 132 vol. (2); pp. 458-470

The origin of spicule-forming cells in a 'primitive' sea urchin (Eucidaris tribuloides) which appears to lack primary mesenchyme cells., 1988
Wray, GA; McClay, DR, Development (Cambridge). (1988) 103 vol. (2); pp. 305-315

Homologies in the colour patterns of the genus Heliconius (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae), 1988
Nijhout, HF; Wray, GA, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. (1988) 33 vol. (4); pp. 345-365

ONTOGENY, PHYLOGENY AND EVOLUTION OF FORM - AN ALGORITHMIC APPROACH, 12, 1986
NIJHOUT, HF; WRAY, GA; KREMEN, C; TERAGAWA, CK, Systematic Zoology. 35 vol. (4); pp. 445-457

THE EMBRYONIC MESENCHYME IN A PRIMITIVE SEA-URCHIN, EUCIDARIS-TRIBULOIDES, 11, 1986
WRAY, GA; MCCLAY, DR, The Journal of Cell Biology. 103 vol. (5); pp. A371-A371

Homologies in the colour patterns of the genus Charaxes (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae), 1986
Nijhout, HF; Wray, GA, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. (1986) 28 vol. (4); pp. 387-410

Book Chapters:

Embryos and evolution: 150 years of reciprical illumination in Evolution Since Darwin, 0, 2010
G.A. Wray

Evolutionary synthesis in the genomic era in Towards an Extended Evolutionary Synthesis, 0, 2009
G.A. Wray

Evolution and Development in Evolution: The First Four Billion Years, 2009
G.A. Wray

Evolution of traits deduced from genome comparisons in Encyclopedia of Life Sciences, 0, 2009
J. Tung and G.A. Wray

Evolution of human gene expression control in Encyclopedia of Life Sciences, 0, 2007
Babbitt, CC and GA Wray

Development of Sea Urchins, Ascidians, and Other Invertebrate Deuterostomes: Experimental Approaches in , 0, 2004
Ettensohn, C.A., G. M. Wessell, and G. A. Wray (eds.)

Papers Submitted

Rudiment resorption observed serendipitously during sea urchin development in 0, 2012
L. Pinto, A. Ragunathan, P. Kapoor, M. McRae, D. Cantelmi, A. Heyland, G.A. Wray, and J. Stone

Awards

  • 1995 Young Investigator Award in Molecular Evolution, Alfred P. Sloan Foundation

  • 1988 NRSA Postdoctoral Fellowship, National Institutes of Health

  • 1982 Graduate Fellowship, National Science Foundation

  • 1981 Graduate Traineeship, National Institutes of Health