|Abstract.- Phylogenetic relationships in the genus Amanita were investigated using sequence data from the nuclear-encoded large subunit ribosomal DNA. Exemplar taxa were selected to represent the all sections from the current classifications of Singer, Bas and Jenkins. Phylogenetic analysis of the nuc-LSU region supports the taxonomic distinction of subgenera Amanita and Lepidella, as well as all nine sections previously recognized by Singer (R. Singer, 1986, The Agaricales in Modern Taxonomy, 4th ed.) including sections Amanita, Amidellae, Caesareae, Lepidella, Mappae, Phalloideae, Ovigerae, Vaginatae, Validae. Phylogenetic analyses among these nine terminal groups reveal several higher-level relationships which are also supported by morphological and biochemical characters. A phylogenetic classification is proposed which recognizes two subgenera (Amanita, Lepidella), four sections (Amanita, Vaginate, Phalloideae, Lepidella), seven subsections (Amanita, Ovigerae, Amidellae, Caesareae, Phalloideae, Vaginatae, Validae), and two series (Mappae, Validae).|
Figure 1: Phylogram showing one of 13 most parsimonious trees resulting from phylogenetic analysis. Tree length = 719 steps, consistency index (excluding uninformative characters) = 0.443, retention index = 0.704, and rescaled consistency index = 0.385. Support for clades is indicated by bootstrap values (above branches) and decay indices (below branches).
Figure 2: Strict consensus of 13 most parsimonious trees and phylogenetic classification of Amanita. Numbers and letters above branches denote taxonomic groupings (clades) discussed in the text. Synapomorphies in the phylogram are as follows: 1A spores not amyloid; 1B spores amyloid; 2A distinct basal bulb, volva not saccate; 2B no basal bulb; 3A annulus present; 3B exannulate; 4A exannulate; 4B annulus present, spores elongate; 5A ?; 5B appendiculate margin; 6A volva not saccate, small spores; 6B saccate volva; 7A spores globose; 7B volva friable; 8A inner layer of volva friable; 8B volva entirely membranous.
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