Examination of coastal watersheds, their biological function, and how anthropogenic modifications impact wetlands, estuaries and near shore coastal ecosystems. Human ecosystem modifications addressed in terms of alterations caused by forestry, agriculture, highways, rural housing, suburban development, urban development and industry. Discussion of human and environmental health as well as ecosystem services provided by coastal systems (biogeochemical cycling and “blue’ carbon). Emphasis placed on gaining an understanding of human impacts on the biology of coastal waters through alteration of the physics, chemistry and geology of coastal waters. Taught at Duke Marine Lab.